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DREM updates the Time Series of Weather Information with data from 2020 

The Regional Directorate of Statistics of Madeira (DREM) updates today on its website the "Time Series of Weather Information" with data from 2020, provided by the Portuguese Institute of Sea and Atmosphere I.P. (IPMA I.P) to Statistics Portugal (INE), through its Regional Delegation. 

Air temperature - 2020 was warmer than 2019 in most stations 

In most weather stations of the Autonomous Region of Madeira, the average annual temperature increased compared to 2019. In Funchal/Lido, Ponta de São Jorge, Lugar de Baixo, Caniçal/Ponta de São Lourenço and São Vicente, the average annual temperature remained the same, while in Ponta do Pargo it decreased. 

In the last 45 years, at the Funchal/Observatory station, the average annual temperatures have varied between 18.1 °C in the years 1976 and 1984 and 20.8 °C, value recorded in 2020, the warmest year at this station since records exist. Compared to 2019, the average annual temperature at this station increased by 0.2 °C. 

The highest average annual temperature in 2020 was recorded at the Lido station (21.0 °C) and the lowest at Pico do Areeiro (10.7 °C). Regarding maximum and minimum air temperatures in the last year, the extremes occurred at Prazeres (34.5 °C in August) and Pico do Areeiro (-2.2 °C in November) stations. 

August was the warmest month of 2020 in 16 of the 21 weather stations operational in the Autonomous Region of Madeira, with monthly average temperatures ranging from 24.5 °C recorded at the Funchal/Observatory station to 17.6 °C recorded at the Bica da Cana station. In opposition, January was the coldest month in 15 of 20 stations (excluding Selvagens, due to the absence of data in January, November and December), showing monthly average values between 5.9 °C at Pico do Areeiro and 18.5 °C in Funchal/Lido. 

Temperatura EN

Precipitation - 2020 was rainier than 2019 

In 2020, all stations for which there are records of total precipitation for the last two years, recorded precipitation values higher than 2019, with emphasis on Caniçal/Ponta de São Lourenço and Santa Cruz/Aeroporto, where the total precipitation in 2020 was 2.6 times higher than in 2019. 

In 2020, the highest values of annual precipitation occurred in the weather stations of Pico do Areeiro (2 279.3 mm), Chão do Areeiro (2 074.3 mm) and Bica da Cana (1 772.2 mm). On the contrary, the lowest values occurred in Funchal/Lido (311.5 mm), Ponta do Pargo (443.9 mm) and Porto Santo/ Aeroporto (464.1 mm). 

November was the rainiest month in most stations, having been in Pico do Areeiro where the highest value of precipitation (698.2 mm) was observed in that month, and in Funchal/Lido station the lowest value (75.0 mm). 

July was, in general, the month that registered less precipitation, with values varying between 0.2 mm at the Funchal/Lido station and 14.6 mm at the Santa/Lombo da Terça station. 

Analysing the days by the amount of precipitation (rainy, very rainy and extremely rainy days), the data show that the maximum rainy days was recorded in Santana (134), and, in the case of rainy days, was Bica da Cana that registered the highest value (56).  Pico do Areeiro stood out in the number of very rainy days (24) and in the extremely rainy days, the highest number was in Chão do Areeiro (19). 

In 2020 there were 327 dry days at the Funchal/Lido station, the maximum value of all weather stations, being lower than the record of 2019 in 8 days. Note that in Funchal/Observatory and Chão do Areeiro, in the last 10 years, the number of days with rain (days with 1 mm of precipitation or more) has always been lower than the 1961/1990 normal. The lowest number of dry days was observed in Santana (232, 27 fewer days than in 2019). 

Precipitacao EN

Relative humidity of air - 2020 was wetter at most stations 

Of the stations that have an annual average of relative humidity of air, only Chão do Areeiro, Santa/Lombo da Terça, Bica da Cana showed a lower value than in 2019. 

Analysing the last year, it is possible to verify that the annual average values of relative humidity of air varied between 65% in Pico do Areeiro and 89% in Ponta de São Jorge, and in both stations, the average relative humidity of air was higher than in 2019 by 3 percentage points (pp). 

In the analysis of the information on the monthly scale, it should be noted that the minimum average value of relative humidity of air (27%) was recorded at the Pico do Areeiro station in July and the maximum average value (96%) was observed at the Lombo da Terça station in June. 

Extreme events, wind and sea surface temperature - 2020 with more tropical nights, less wind and warmer seawater 

Concerning tropical nights, i.e., in which the minimum temperature was equal to or greater than 20°C, except for two stations located at the extremes of the island of Madeira (Caniçal and Ponta do Pargo), the remaining stations recorded an equal or greater number of tropical nights compared to 2019. The Funchal/Lido station stood out with 122 days recorded, followed by the Porto Moniz station with 108 days, Funchal/Observatory with 107 days and Lugar de Baixo with 105 days. Compared to 2019, in these stations, there was an increase of 2, 41, 10 and 1 nights, respectively. 

In 2020, the highest average daily temperature range (difference between maximum and minimum temperature) occurred at the station of Bica da Cana (9.0 ° C), which was the highest value recorded in the series 2000-2020. The previous highest value had been recorded in 2011, at the Santo da Serra station and in 2012 in Quinta Grande (8.8 °C, in both cases). The lowest difference between maximum and minimum daily temperatures in 2020, was observed at the Ponta de São Lourenço station (4.0 °C). 

In 2020, the average annual wind intensity decreased at most stations. The exceptions were Funchal/Observatory, Funchal/Lido, Funchal/Monte, Po​nta do Pargo and Lugar de Baixo. Lombo da Terça was the station with the highest annual average (25.4 km/h), with Monte as the lowest (4.5 Km/h). 

The strongest gust was recorded at Chão do Areeiro (125 km/h), lower than the 2019 maximum at the same station (150 km/h). 

In 2020, the average annual surface seawater temperature measured at Pontinha (Funchal) was 21.0 °C, +0.1 °C than in 2019 and the highest in the last 8 years. The average for September was the highest (23.8°C) and April the lowest (19.1°C).

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